(1) (a) Except as provided in Subsection (1)(b), a nonprofit corporation may eliminate or limit the liability of a director to the nonprofit corporation or to its members for monetary damages for any action taken or any failure to take any action as a directorfn1, if:
(i) so provided in:
(A) the articles of incorporation;
(B) the bylaws; or
(C) a resolution;fn2 and
(ii) to the extent permitted in Subsection (3).
(b) Subsection (1)(a) does not permit a nonprofit corporation from eliminating or limiting the liability of a director for:
(i) the amount of a financial benefit received by a director to which the director is not entitled;
(ii) an intentional infliction of harm on:
(A) the nonprofit corporation; or
(B) the members of a nonprofit corporation;
(iii) an intentional violation of criminal law; or
(iv) a violation of Section 16-6a-824.
(2) A provision authorized under this section may not eliminate or limit the liability of a director for any act or omission occurring prior to the date when the provision becomes effective.
(3) Any provision authorized under this section to be included in the articles of incorporation may be adopted in the bylaws or by resolution, but only if the provision is approved by the same percentage of members of each voting group as would be required to approve an amendment to the articles of incorporation including the provision.
(4) Any foreign nonprofit corporation authorized to transact business in this state, except as otherwise provided by law, may adopt any provision authorized under this section.
Amended by Chapter 386, 2009 General Session
FN 1. Liability. What liability do directors and officers have under the law? None, if they act with what is commonly called "business judgment," which is carrying out of the director's duties:
(1) in good faith,
(2) with care an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would exercise under similar circumstances, and
(3) in a manner the director reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation.
The law states that a director or officer is not liable to the nonprofit corporation or its members for any action taken, or any failure to take any action, as an officer or director, as the case may be, unless:
(1) the director or officer has breached or failed to perform the duties of the office:
(a) in good faith,
(b) with the care an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would exercise under similar circumstances, and
(c) in a manner the director reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation, and
(2) the breach or failure to perform constitutes:
(a) willful misconduct; or
(b) intentional infliction of harm on the nonprofit corporation or the members; or
(c) gross negligence.
(See Utah Code Subsections 16-6a-822(2) and (6)).
A director who relies on counsel of an attorney may be entitled to a stronger presumption that the director acted with "business judgment," and thus that the director is entitled to liability protection. See Utah Code Subsections 16-6a-822(3).
For indemnification of directors and advance of defense expenses of directors, see Sections 16-6a-901 through 910.
FN 2. Indemnification Provisions - See Also. Regarding provisions for indemnification and limitations on liability of board members, see also the following sections in the Condo Act and Community Association Act authorizing the association's rules to provide for indemnification of board members, and authorizing any of the documents related to the formation or operation of the nonprofit corporation to provide for liability limitation, as well as indemnification:
- Utah Code Sections 57-8-8.1(5)(d) and 57-8a-218(13)(d) (2018) ("(13) Unless otherwise provided in the declaration, an association may by rule: . . . (d) provide for the indemnification of the association’s officers and board consistent with Title 16, Chapter 6a, Utah Revised Nonprofit Corporation Act." 57-8a-218(13)(d)).
- Utah Code Sections 57-8-40(4) and 57-8a-228(4) (2018) ("Notwithstanding any conflict with the declaration or any recorded bylaws, the organizational documents of a nonprofit corporation or other entity formed in accordance with Subsection (2) may include an additional indemnification and liability limitation provision for: (a) board members or officers; or (b) similar in a position of control." 57-8a-228(4)).